Following the accident involving a TransNusa Air Services ATR 42-600 and Batik Air Flight 7703, it can be ascertained that several human factors and errors contributed to the collision. In as much as it is shown that the main cause of the accident was the issue of Flight 7703 taking off at the same time when ATR-42 was being towed to a hangar, the use of the SHEL model interfaces and mismatches as well as other analytical tools can help in better bring out and classifying the factors which led to the accident. The SHELL encompasses a conceptual model of human factors which clarifies the scope of aviation human factors and hence helps in showing relationships between aviation system resources and the human components in the aviation system. The factors contributing to the accident are classified as follows:
The human senses with respect to collecting environment related information are limited in nature. As such, it is prudent for people working at airports to have seeing and hearing aids. In the case of the accident between the 7703 and the ATR 42-600, it is shown that the ground crew towing ATR-42 could only communicate with the crew members at the tower using handheld communication which was not sufficient. It was also noted that ATR-42 did not have its lights on hence it was difficult for the ATC to notice the movement of the aircraft. As such, it was very hard for the different crews to communicate with each other since their hearing and seeing were limited hence leading to the accident taking place.
According to the stipulations of the SHELL model, human beings have limitations in information processing abilities which can also be influenced by other intrinsic factors such as high work load and stress. For example, it is ascertained that cannot see objects clearly at night hence producing implications for pilot performances during night flying. With respect to the collision between TransNusa Air Services ATR 42-600 and Batik Air Flight 7703, the accident took place at 19:55 WIB. At this time, the airport was also experiencing light showers hence the visibility was very low. Investigations also showed that the frequency of communication between the tug driver and ATC was done at a frequency of 152.700MHz which was not available on flight decks hence there was no communication between the pilots and the tug driver was able to see the eminent danger. As such, poor information processing was a human factor which contributed to the occurrence of the accident.
After sensing and processing relevant information, output encompasses decisions and communications that are made. In the case of the accident, when the two pilots saw each of the two planes, they were aware that a collision was unavoidable. The pilot for Batik Air Flight 7703 tried to initiate a take-off but the plane declined to do so. As such, the only plausible thing to do was to veer the planes away from each other as much as possible. It’s reported that the pilot for 7703 applied the right rudder and maintained between the runway edge and the runway centerline. In essence, taking these decisions helped in reducing the impact of the collision.
The environment aspect of the SHELL model stipulates that workers function effectively within a small range of environmental conditions. With respect to the collision between 7703 and the plane being towed, the environmental conditions played a big role in the accident taking place. First, the time was at nightfall hence it was already dark. Secondly, there were light showers at the airport hence further limiting the visibility at the airport. In addition to this, the lighting system at the airport was not sufficient. As such, all the above stated environmental factors reinforced with the human factors led to the occurrence of the accident.
How investigation findings enable us to understand human factors better
Carrying out detailed and comprehensive investigations helps in showcasing the different factors that might have led to an accident. In addition to this, investigations helps to show how different factors inter-related with each other hence leading to an accident taking place. Generally, accidents encompass both human factors and environmental factors. Contemporary studies show that 80% of aviation accidents take place due to human error and not mechanical errors as previously perceived. As such, the following are some of the ways in which investigation findings enable us to understand human factors better.
Reviewing the findings from investigations provide a good grounding into major issues to be considered. In this case, the findings show the limitations which might have been present and which might have led to an accident taking place. As with the discussed accident above, it was found that there was inadequate communication between the different crews. This has led to the addressing of such limitations to avoid further incidents from occurring.
Analysis of factors that influence human failures. It is noted that human factors are reinforced by other environmental factors which lead to the accidents taking place. Studies show that reduction of such factors can greatly reduce the chances of accidents taking place. In the case of the Batik Air Flight 7703, environmental factors had a great impact on the human failures that were experienced. In this case, it is prudent to handle the other factors as the human factors are taken care of.
Investigations lays out all the necessary details on an accident. As with the Batik Air Flight 7703 accident, investigations replays the whole scenario, takes all relevant information and reconstructs the whole accident. In addition to this, investigations encompass simulations which show on different outcomes that could be elicited had different decisions been made. In this case, it helps to show how the human factor played its role in a given accident. Additionally, these investigations helps to show the person or the organization that might have been at fault and whose shortcomings led to the occurrence of the accident being investigated.
Investigations show the strengths and weaknesses of the people involved in an accident. In this case, investigations take into condition all the people in an aviation accident. These investigations further show the roles played by different people in the occurrence of the said accident. Moreover, the investigations shows what the different types of people could have done to either prevent the accident from happening or reduce its impact. In this case, it can be concluded that investigation findings enable us to understand human factors better by showing us the roles played in an accident taking place and the different measures that could have been taken to mistaken such an accident from occurring.
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