The normal male to female live birth sex ratio ranges from about 1.03 to 1.07. The sex ratio is defined as the ratio of male births to female births. You might expect boy and girl births to be equally likely, but in fact, baby boys are somewhat more common than baby girls.
Higher sex ratios are thought to reflect prenatal sex selection, especially among cultures where sons are prized more heavily than daughters. We will review sex ratios in the United States as a whole, as well as in individual states, to determine whether sex ratios vary significantly among various ethnic and racial groups.
To do this analysis, we will utilize natality data for the United States, provided by the Centers for Disease Control.
In the first part of the assignment, we will look at sex ratios for your home state, over the time period 1995 to 2002, by race. To obtain this information:
We can now process the downloaded data in Excel.
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3|
|Race A||Ratio for Race A in Year 1||Ratio for Race A in Year 2||Ratio for Race A in Year 3|
|Race B||Ratio for Race B in Year 1||Ratio for Race B in Year 2||Ratio for Race B in Year 3|
In the second part of this assignment, you will undertake some formal statistical procedures with the natality data. We will repeat the previous steps, with some slight modifications.
We have only four racial groups in this dataset: American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asian or Pacific Islanders, Black or African Americans, and Whites.
Using the normal approximation to the binomial distribution (without continuity correction), calculate z statistics for assessing whether the proportion of boys is .51 in each of the 4 racial groups, where n is the total number of births in a particular cohort, p = .51, q = 1 – p = .49, and x is the number of boy births; z = ((x – np) / sqrt(npq) ).
Under the null hypothesis that the proportion of boys should be 0.51, and under the normal approximation to the binomial distribution, the z statistics should have (approximately) standard normal distributions, (mean 0, standard deviation 1). Do any of the z statistics suggest that the proportion of boy births in any particular racial group differs significantly from .51?
Comment on your findings in your written report. Describe whether you think your results would change if we hadn’t limited consideration to the first-born. Assignment should be at least 250-500 words in APA format supported by scholarly sources.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
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