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Chapter 16: Renal System and Male reproductive System

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1. The activation of angiotensin does which of the following:

 

a. Vasoconstriction             b. Increase the resorption of sodium and water            c. Increase blood volume   d. Decrease blood volume

 

2. A 56 year old male presents to the clinic with the following complaints: increased urgency and frequency of urination, fever, malaise.  Urinalysis reveals cloudy urine with white blood cells and bacteria present.  Which of the following is a likely diagnosis?

 

a. Benign prostatic hypertrophy       b. Chlamydia       c. acute bacterial prostatitis               d. Prostate cancer

 

3. A 32-year-old man comes to his physician complaining of frequency, dysuria, and urgency for several days, as well as pain in the perineal region. The digital rectal examination is extremely painful. He most likely has

 

A. A primary chancre of syphilis in his genital organs                  B. A bladder infection        C. Pyelonephritis                  D. Kidney stones

E. Acute prostatitis

 

4. One of the kidneys of an 18-month-old girl is removed because she has had repeated urinary tract infections. The kidney is smaller than normal and contains many cysts. Microscopic examination shows poorly developed and disorganized glomeruli, and tubules and islands of cartilage in the cortex. The renal pelvis, calyces, and proximal ureter are dilated. The other kidney appears entirely normal. This condition is called

 

A. Potter’s syndrome          B. Infantile polycystic kidney disease             C. Horseshoe kidney           D. Renal agenesis

E. Renal dysplasia

 

5. Which of the following patients is not at increased risk for developing a urinary tract infection?

 

A. A 73-year-old, demented man with an indwelling urinary catheter

B. A 25-year-old, recently married woman

C. A 2-year-old boy with ureteral reflux

D. An 82-year-old man with severe prostatic hypertrophy

E. A 70-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma

 

6. A 56-year-old man has a hard, irregular lump in the posterior lobe of his prostate. Which of the following signs or symptoms would most likely be present?

 

A. Elevated prostate specific antigen                              B. Hematuria                       C. Casts in the urine

D. Urinary frequency                                                          E. Dysuria

 

7. A 69-year-old man presents to the clinician complaining of unilateral flank pain and hematuria for several weeks. He does not have a fever. The physician can palpate a mass in the patient’s right flank. The best way to diagnose this patient’s condition is:

 

A. Cystoscopy                      B. Intravenous pyelogram                 C. Cytologic examination of urine

D. CT scan                            E. Digital rectal exam

 

8.  The most common causes of dialysis-dependence in the United States are

 

A. Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis           B. Membranous and mesangial nephropathy due to systemic lupus erythematosus

C. Hypertension and diabetes                                           D. Congenital conditions such as polyceptic kidney disease

E. Various types of renal cell carcinomas

 

9. All of the following are treatments for urolithiasis except:

 

I. Large volumes of water                  II. Lithotripsy                       III. Pain medications                          IV. Ultrasound

 

a. I and II              b. II and III          c. I and III            d. I, II, and III                      e. All of the above

 

 

10 Functions of the nephron include all of the following except

 

A. Reabsorption of urea nitrogen     B. Fluid homeostasis                           C. Maintaining electrolyte balance

D. Regulation of blood pressure       E. Maintaining blood pH

 

Chapter 17: Female Reproductive System

 

1. A 24-year-old female presents to the clinic with complaints of headache, a rash on her palms, soles, and mucus membranes.  Which of the following is a likely diagnosis?

 

A. secondary syphilis                          B. Chlamydia                       C. Gonorrhea        D. Pelvic inflammatory disease

 

2. A 22-year-old female presents to the clinic with complaints of vaginal itching and pain, and thick cottage cheese like discharge.  Which of the following is a likely diagnosis?

 

A. Trichomoniasis               B. Candidiasis                      C. Herpes simplex virus                      D. Human papillomavirus

 

3. Meigs syndrome is the occurrence of ascites and right-sided hydrothorax associated with which of the following:

 

A. Teratoma                         B. Leiomyoma                     C. Fibrothecoma                  D. Leukoplakia

 

4. A 71-year-old woman who has never been pregnant and always had normal Pap tests notices spotty vaginal bleeding. Work-up is performed and a biopsy reveals cancer. Which is she most likely to have?

 

A. Stage I endometrial carcinoma                   B. Stage IV cervical carcinoma        C. Stage I ovarian cancer

D. Stage III endometrial carcinoma                                E. Stage I vulvar carcinoma

 

5. A 36-year-old woman, following an evaluation for infertility, is told that her fallopian tubes have excessive scar tissue, thus not allowing the ovum to travel to the uterus at the time of ovulation. This is most likely due to             remote:

 

A. Ovarian cyst                    B. Herpes infection             C. Gonorrhea        D. Trichomoniasis               E. Syphilis

 

6. A 56-year-old, otherwise perfectly healthy woman comes to the doctor complaining of vulvar itching. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

 

A. Trichomoniasis               B. Lichen simplex chronicus             C. Squamous cell carcinoma

D. Herpes simplex virus      E. Candidiasis

 

7. A 26-year-old woman who is otherwise healthy and has normal menstrual cycles complains of diffuse pelvic pain that is worse during menstruation. She also has recently developed pain with defecation and sexual intercourse. An ultrasound reveals a large cyst on one of her ovaries. This cyst is likely

 

A. A malignant serous carcinoma                    B. Pseudomyxoma peritonei             C. A teratoma

D. An endometrioma                                          E. A benign fibroma

 

8. A 36-year-old woman, following an evaluation for infertility, is told that her fallopian tubes have excessive scar tissue, thus not allowing the ovum to travel to the uterus at the time of ovulation. This is most likely due to             remote:

 

A. Ovarian cyst                    B. Herpes infection             C. Gonorrhea        D. Trichomoniasis               E. Syphilis

 

9. A 45-year-old woman is being evaluated for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Pelvic examination reveals a large, lumpy uterus. According to the patient’s medical record, a large, lumpy uterus was noted at her last pelvic examination five years earlier. The most likely diagnosis is:

 

A. Uterine carcinoma                          B. Leiomyomata                 C. Cervical carcinoma        D. Pregnancy

E. Polycystic ovary disease

 

10. An obese, 28-year-old with hirsutism, irregular menstrual cycles, and a history of gonorrhea infection is being evaluated for infertility. Which of the following conditions is least likely to be contributing to her infertility?

 

A. Pelvic inflammatory disease        B. Endometriosis                 C. Obesity             D. Leiomyomata

 

E. Polycystic ovary disease

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