Media systems – different aspects

1. (a) Using Hallin & Mancini’s ThreeModelsframework, categorize the national media system of an African country of your choice (South Africa and Nigeria excluded).

(b) Demonstrate – i.e. explain, using examples – the process through which you arrived at your categorization.

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2. Carefully read this excerpt from the article titled “Institutionalizing community radio in Nigeria: Some undercurrents” and answer the questions below:

In global terms, radio broadcasting operates at three levels today. These are the levels of public, commercial and community broadcasting. […] The view taken in this paper is that community radio broadcasting should be properly understood as … a form of radio broadcasting that gives direct access and control to its audience or consumers. In contrast, the other two levels, namely, public and commercial broadcasting, maintain a disparity in ownership and control between operators and managers of broadcasting, on one hand, and the audience/consumers, on the other. […]

The purpose of this paper [is] to expose and interpret the role of elite interests and actions in the unfolding institutionalization of community radio in Nigeria. The analysis suggests that elite actions may be characterized as: some elite-fractions lobbying other elite-fractions in order to generate consensus around the idea of empowering non-elites in the sphere of radio broadcasting. The contradiction in this action probably explains the tardiness in the inauguration of community radio broadcasting in Nigeria. It is recommended that a change of strategy needs to take place if community radio broadcasting is to take off. While the pressure groups may still function as the arrowhead for setting up and speeding up the institutionalization process, the same sub-group needs to transfer the focus of its actions to the non-elites. In other words, the actions of the pressure groups need to become more geared toward mobilizing the non-elites or the general assemblies of the communities.

[In L. Oso, D. Soola & U. Pate, (Eds.) Media, Governance and Development: Issues and Trends, pp.187—196. Lagos: Primus, 2011.]

(a) Analyze the argument of the excerpt, i.e. identify and state the logical components of the excerpt as well as their relationship to one another.

(b) Evaluate the argument, i.e. comment on the soundness or validity of the argument and give cogent reasons for your comment.

  1. Fully distinguish between authoritarian and libertarian media systems. Illustrate your discussion with suitable examples.
  2. (a) Discuss the concept of hybrid media systems and

(b) Discuss the implications of hybrid media systems for the design and implementation of a marketing communications campaign.

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