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Week 2: Humanistic/Existential Theories

 

Introduction

 

Consider your thoughts about the following statements:

 

·         People are generally good, trustworthy, productive, and able to make positive changes.

 

·         The responsibility for change and growth lies with the client.

 

·         We should focus on the “here and now,” not so much on the “then and there.”

 

These statements reflect humanistic and existential theories developed by theorists such as Carl Rogers, Rollo May, Victor Frankl, and Fritz Perlz. This week, you explore the key components of humanistic and existential theories. You are also introduced to Deidre, a client depicted in media throughout several weeks of this course. Each week that Deidre’s case is presented, you will use theories to propose effective interventions that could help her to reach her goals.

 

 

Students will: Apply humanistic/existential interventions

 

·         Evaluate humanistic/existential theories

 

 

 

·         Apply concepts related to humanistic/existential theories

 

Please proceed to the Resources.

 

Week 2 Discussion

 

 

 

Applying Humanistic and Existential Theories

 

A common element of this week’s theories is the focus on client emotion. The central tenet of these theories is that clients are at the center of the counseling process. When counselors use these approaches, they ask clients to not only assess their emotions, but also how they perceive these emotions to influence their lives.

 

During this process, counselors who often use humanistic and existential approaches partner alongside the client as a nonjudgmental ally, prompting the clients to reconnect with themselves and increase their own self-awareness. Theorists in these paradigms believe that it is not the interpretation of the counselor that helps clients, but rather the interpretation of the clients themselves. In fact, prominent humanistic and existential theorists cast aside the dominant, all-knowing presence of the counselor illustrated by some behavioral and psychoanalytic approaches.

 

In this Discussion, you consider how each of this week’s theories, existential, person-centered, and Gestalt, provides a different counseling approach. You also reflect upon how theoretical approaches influence the interventions that you might employ with your case study client, Deidre. Before watching the Deidre media, review this week’s Learning Resources to review how the Capuzzi and Gross text used each theoretical approach with the client in “The Case of Maria.”

 

Posting Directions: In the subject line of your post, use the following title format: “Title of Discussion: The theory you selected for this Discussion.” Your initial post must be at least 200 words in length.

 

Post by Day 3 a brief description of the humanistic or existential theory you selected. Then, based on this theoretical approach, describe two interventions you could employ with Deidre and explain why. Finally, explain how each of these interventions would help Deidre move toward her goals.

 

DUE BY 12/9/15 @ 5PM Eastern Standard Time

 

 

 

 Week 2 Learning Resources

 

This page contains the Learning Resources for this week. Be sure to scroll down the page to see all of this week’s assigned Learning Resources.

 

 

Readings

 

·    Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. R. (Ed.). (2011). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (5th ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

 

o    Chapter 6, “Existential Theory” (pp. 119–142)

 

o    Chapter 7, “Person-Centered Theory” (pp. 143–166)

 

o    Chapter 8, “Gestalt Theory” (pp. 167–191)

 

Media

 

·         Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Deidre [Multimedia]. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

Note: Please click on the following link for the transcript: Transcript (PDF)

 

 

·         Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.aagt.org/

 

·         Association for the Development of the Person Centered Approach. (2011).  Retrieved fromhttp://www.adpca.org/ 

 

·         Association for Humanistic Psychology. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ahpweb.org/

 

·         Existential-Humanistic Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ehinstitute.org/

 

·         World Association for Person Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.pce-world.org/

 

Please proceed to the Discussion.Return to top

 

 

 

THIS IS A QUIZ DUE BY 12/12/[email protected] 5pm EASTERN STANDARD TIME

 

 

 

QUESTION 1

 

1.      In order to be genuine, counselors:

 

[removed]

a.

Have to practice using a “poker face”

[removed]

b.

Have to know themselves

[removed]

c.

Must use reflections of feeling

[removed]

d.

Should avoid analysis of transference

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 2

 

1.       Heidegger’s notions of choice, that each choice one makes represents the loss of an alternative, includes all of the following except:

 

[removed]

a.

The past becomes important in terms of lost opportunities.

[removed]

b.

Future choices are limited due to past choices and the time remaining to fulfill them.

[removed]

c.

We have the freedom to choose but must balance this with responsibility.

[removed]

d.

Some choices are irrational and we need to train ourselves not to make them with rewards and punishments.

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 3

 

1.      Consider a client who feels that he is unlikable by others in his life. When the counseling discussion turns to how likeable the client is to the counselor or therapist, this is an example of:

 

[removed]

a.

Distracting the client

[removed]

b.

Empathic understanding

[removed]

c.

Immediacy

[removed]

d.

Self-actualization

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 4

 

1.       The three people credited for the development of Gestalt therapy are:

 

[removed]

a.

Perls, Burber, and Nitche

[removed]

b.

Perls, Perls, and Goodman

[removed]

c.

Rogers, Glassman, and Goodman

[removed]

d.

Perls, Kohler, and Koffka

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 5

 

1.      As a person becomes more congruent, which of the following changes is most likely to be seen?

 

[removed]

a.

Elimination of negative thoughts

[removed]

b.

Eradication of problem behaviors

[removed]

c.

Greater self-empowerment

[removed]

d.

Success in a failing relationship

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 6

 

1.       All of the following are existential philosophers except:

 

[removed]

a.

Sartre

[removed]

b.

Heidegger

[removed]

c.

Tillich

[removed]

d.

Bion

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 7

 

1.      Accurate _______ means that the counselor is able to both understand the client’s words, feelings, and perceptions of the world and communicate that understanding successfully.

 

[removed]

a.

empathy

[removed]

b.

congruence

[removed]

c.

unconditional positive regard

[removed]

d.

genuineness

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 8

 

1.       In existential counseling, the client is

 

[removed]

a.

An existential partner with the counselor

[removed]

b.

A student learning from a teacher

[removed]

c.

Analyzed by the counselor

[removed]

d.

None of the above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 9

 

1.       Which of the following is descriptive of what “closure” means in existential counseling?

 

[removed]

a.

Facing the end of the helping relationship is the final confrontation with reality. 

[removed]

b.

It means stopping therapy at the end of the semester at a counseling center. 

[removed]

c.

It is when counselors close out all of their files. 

[removed]

d.

It is a relatively unimportant part of counseling. 

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 10

 

1.      According to person-centered theory, for someone to be continuously believed and trusted by a client they must:

 

[removed]

a.

years of professional experience

[removed]

b.

be genuine

[removed]

c.

know the right questions to ask

[removed]

d.

not make mistakes

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 11

 

1.      A criticism of person-centered counseling or therapy is:

 

[removed]

a.

Its deterministic stance

[removed]

b.

Rigid steps in the counseling or therapy process

[removed]

c.

Too few specifics regarding actions for the new counselor or therapist

[removed]

d.

Overly confrontational

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 12

 

1.      Perls:

 

[removed]

a.

Had a passionate belief in the holistic nature of humankind

[removed]

b.

Believed that human beings had the capacity and strength to grow, develop, and to become the persons that they desired

[removed]

c.

Asked clients to focus on why they behaved in certain ways

[removed]

d.

Both “a” and “b” above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 13

 

1.      The word Gestalt is a German term that means:

 

[removed]

a.

Counselor/client working alliance

[removed]

b.

Existential anxiety

[removed]

c.

The integration of parts into a perceptual whole

[removed]

d.

The phenomenological field

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 14

 

1.      Active listening includes which of the following?

 

[removed]

a.

Making good eye contact

[removed]

b.

Leaning toward the client

[removed]

c.

Facing the client

[removed]

d.

All of the above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 15

 

1.      The study of human experience through attending to the subjective observations of individuals is:

 

[removed]

a.

Retroflection

[removed]

b.

Empty chair

[removed]

c.

Boundary disturbance

[removed]

d.

Phenomenology

 

2 points   

 

 

 

QUESTION 16

 

1.      The most important factor in the therapeutic alliance is the:

 

[removed]

a.

Quality and nature of the relationship between counselor or therapist and client

[removed]

b.

Counselor’s or therapist’s skills

[removed]

c.

Client’s willingness to work hard

[removed]

d.

Depth of the problems being experienced

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 17

 

1.       A phenomenological perspective:

 

[removed]

a.

Describes the concept that all persons view the world in a similar manner

[removed]

b.

Describes the concept that all persons have a unique perspective

[removed]

c.

Describes the concept of the “I-Thou” relationship

[removed]

d.

None of the above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 18

 

1.       Which of the following is not one of the three approaches to existential counseling?

 

[removed]

a.

Dynamic existentialism 

[removed]

b.

Humanistic existentialism 

[removed]

c.

Cognitive/behavioral existentialism 

[removed]

d.

Transpersonal existentialism 

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 19

 

1.       Which of the following is not a goal of existential counseling:

 

[removed]

a.

Confronting anxieties about the givens of existence

[removed]

b.

Developing meaning from everyday life

[removed]

c.

Confronting irrational thoughts that lead to difficult emotions

[removed]

d.

Developing inner strength

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 20

 

1.      One of the views that Gestalt theory holds regarding the individual is that he or she is:

 

[removed]

a.

Fully responsible for his/her behavior

[removed]

b.

Shaped by forces in the environment

[removed]

c.

Motivated by unconscious drives

[removed]

d.

Not able to become aware of himself or herself in the here and now

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 21

 

1.      The founder of person-centered counseling is:

 

[removed]

a.

Carl Rogers

[removed]

b.

Victor Frankl

[removed]

c.

Fritz Perls

[removed]

d.

Rollo May

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 22

 

1.       Which of the following are major constructs of existentialism?

 

[removed]

a.

Death

[removed]

b.

Freedom

[removed]

c.

Isolation

[removed]

d.

All of the above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 23

 

1.      Which statement is most descriptive of Buber’s “I-Thou ” relationship?

 

[removed]

a.

People speak about others, but seldom to them.

[removed]

b.

This relationship embodies a holy respect for the other person.

[removed]

c.

This relationship has little meaning, because there is little sense of self.

[removed]

d.

It shows a relationship that is condescending and not respectful.

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 24

 

1.      Awareness is the key to Gestalt therapy. Through awareness, the organism/person naturally proceeds toward:

 

[removed]

a.

Growth

[removed]

b.

Integration

[removed]

c.

Differentiated unity

[removed]

d.

All of the above

 

2 points   

 

QUESTION 25

 

1.      Change during Gestalt counseling and psychotherapy comes about as clients become more aware of themselves through:

 

[removed]

a.

Using a continuum of awareness focused on how, what, and where

[removed]

b.

Using questions rather than statements

[removed]

c.

Using the third-person pronoun “they”

[removed]

d.

Addressing others indirectly

 

2 points   

 

DUE BY 12/12/15 @ 5 pm EASTERN STANDARD  TIME

 

 

 

 

 

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