EXAM 10 This exam has a total of 14 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. – Assignment Help

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This exam has a total of 14 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

  1. According to the article what is the cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? (1 point)
  1. In the monoamines under influence section of the neuromodulators possibly unbalanced by epigenetic regulations section the author wrote “Several studies of autistic troubles have therefore addressed the production, transport and metabolism of 5-HT, depending themselves upon the expression of specific genes.” Why is the production, transport, and metabolism of 5-HT addressed? (1 point)
  1. What brain concentration of chemicals are responsible for ASD? High or low? (1 point)
  1. Quote something from the article as evidence that your answer to question 3 is correct. (1 point)
  1. What is responsible for this concentration? (1 point)
  1. Quote something from the article as evidence that your answer to question 5 is correct. (1 point)
  1. In the enzymatic deficiency paragraph of the monoamines under influence section of the neuromodulators possibly unbalanced by epigenetic regulations section the author wrote “The key-role of MAOA is also evidenced in genetically modified mice with MAO knock-out (KO) gene, displaying autistic features associated with brain abnormalities.” Why does the MAO knock-out gene cause autism? (1 point)

  1. In the epigenetics paragraph of the monoamines under influence section of the neuromodulators possibly unbalanced by epigenetic regulations section the author wrote “Among potential xenobiotics, VPA has been found to stimulate the production of MAOA and, consequently, the degradation of 5-HT [26]. Unexpectedly, if taken during pregnancy, this small molecule is known to possibly generate autistic features in the offspring [31], which have been linked with high 5-HT synaptic levels, instead. This apparent contradiction can be resolved by discriminating two separate contests in which VPA may reach the brain.” What is contradiction is the author referring to? Explain it. (1 point)
  1. In the genesis of a learning constraint section the author wrote “In this formalism, the direction/path taken by a given inner-flow depends on the occurrence of afferent stimuli, one after the other, hence the expression” “guided propagation.” Why is this afferent? (1 point)
  1. What one word in the quote of question 9 is responsible for your answer to question 9? (1 point)
  1. In the offline cycles of memory encoding: a new model section the author wrote “The decrease of R (W5ht/Wne) displayed in both Figs. 3 and 4 represents 5-HT/NE, during a sleep cycle. The regular timing of offline phases within each cycle results from the maximum value of R at the beginning of each cycle: lowest in sensorimotor modules, medium in forward-looking modules, and highest in cross-circuits.” What does a maximum value of R indicate? (1 point)
  1. How do you know that your answer to question 11 is correct? (1 point)
  1. In the possible causes of monoamines disruption in the fetal brain section the author wrote “Indeed, a large number of environmental factors have been shown to modify the expression and activity of this enzyme [25]. The most aggressive ones are drugs which are known to increase enzymatic activity, such as Forskolin [76] notably used as food supplement for losing weight, and also VPA against epilepsy and bipolar disorders.” Which enzyme is the author referring to? (1 point)
  1. What does the enzyme asked about in question 13 do? (1 point)


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