Cuyamaca College Modern American Indians Discussion

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You begin your discussion work  in the class with the subject of Modern American Indians.  You first read Chapter 2 in the text, and the Modern American Indians lecture and you read the Baydo essay in the reader book American Indians from Assimilation to Casinos.  Plus you are to view the various Modern American Indian videos.

You are now to become a newspaper reporter  who has followed Red Power movement from its beginning to its end.  You are going to describe this movement its its leaders, various organizations with their demonstrations and protests, and the various tribes with their protests and demonstrations. You are going to use text, lecture, reader book essay, videos, plus the following websites in writing your news paper article in this discussion assignment. Here are the websites to review:

Red Power- (Links to an external site.)

National Indian Youth Council-   (Links to an external site.)

American Indian Movement- (Links to an external site.)

Finally you are going to comment on whether you feel the Indians casinos are helpful to the modern Indians and also agree or disagree with two other students in this discussion assignment.


I would first like to recognize the purpose of the Red Power Movement. The resistance

of the American Indians against the U.S. government was due to the fact that the U.S.

government was taking the sovereignty and rights of American Indians with policies

such as House Concurrent Resolution 108 which decreased tribal power and The

Relocation Act of 1956 which forced American Indians to move into urban areas to look

for new work. The Red Power movement’s goal was to get self-rule for American

Indians in their property which the U.S. government took over.Many organizations were

involved in the Red Power Movement because land is the main source of power. When

the tribes like the Navajo tribe get their land taken away, their only option is to work in

the economically worse cities. One example is the American Indian Movement (AIM)

which tried to get Indian civil rights for the American Indians that got relocated to the

cities. With leaders such as Russell Means and Fred Hampton the AIM worked to get

their 20- point list of demands to be accomplished with things such as to restore the

original rights that the Native Nations had, bring back treaty making, and give all Indians

housing, education, and healthcare. They made the Trail of Broken Treaties which

surrounded the Bureau of Indian Affairs to get people to encourage tribal sovereignty.

Another organization includes the National Indian Youth Council who followed in the

direction of the National Congress of American Indians to secure Indian rights like to

hunt and fish. One of their protess was the Poor People’s Campaign which was led by

Martin Luther King, Jr to get better treatment for the lower earning people of the U.S.

They also participated in the the Trail of Broken Treaties. The Red Power movement

included protests like the Longest Walk of 1978 which was held to try to get economical

resources, housing,and more for the poor. Another protest was the Occupation of

Alcatraz which was led by Richard Oakes and Adam Norwall and released the Alcatraz

Proclamation which said that Indians owned Alcatraz Islands because they founded it.

Although it ended up being a failure,it supported the Indian society. The Red Power

Movement ended with great success in the 1970s and benefitted the Indian casinos. In

the United States, new Indian studies programs started as well as tribal museums like

the National Museum of the American Indian and the Mall. A great impact of the Red

Power Movement is the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of

1975 which led tribes once again rule their own tribes with some economic support from

the U.S. government. The Red Power Movement, overall, was a successful rebellion

and that had the American Indians work together to secure their rule and culture in a

time of chaos.

friend 2

After following The Red Power Movement ever since the history of it began in 1944 (although its rise came around the 1960s) and when it ended around the 1970s, I am now ready to share my knowledge about this social movement. This social movement has been led by the Native American youth with the purpose of demanding self-determination for Native Americans in the United States. The head leaders of this movement were Dennis Banks, Vernon Bellecourt and Clyde Bullecourt. While this movement sought the rights for Native Americans to have the authority to make their own policies and programs while controlling their own land and resources, they took a rather confrontational approach to inciting change in the United States towards Native American affairs. Their methods consisted of mass action that was unified and militant. The various organizations that were involved in The Red Power Movement were the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Youth Council, Women of All Red Nations and the International Indian Treaty Council. The American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded in 1968 which was organized to work for Indian civil rights in the cities. They focused on monitoring law enforcement practices, worked to prevent police harassment and brutality and were also skilled at attracting attention from news media and inspired writing about American Indian political issues. The Nation Indian Youth council was founded in 1961 by young American Indians that were one of the first militant Indian rights organizations and were involved in many events in the Red Power Movement. The Women For All Red Nations emerged in 1974 and focused on American Indian women’s and family rights. Examples of issues they fought against were the forced sterilization of Native women and the lack of adequate health services on the reservations. They took action by becoming involved in Indian custody battles, protesting mining companies that were poisoning water and food, and collecting data on Indian women who had been sterilized without consent. The International Indian Treaty Council was founded in 1974 as well which grew into a voice for Indians internationally. They focused on the pursuit of sovereignty and self-determination for indigenous peoples through activism, training, and unified gatherings. The Red Power Movement highlighted many of its issues through protesting in hopes of the federal government honoring treaty obligations and providing funds for things such as resources, education, housing and healthcare to decrease poverty. An event that I would like to bring to light is the Occupation of Alcatraz which began in 1969 and was planned by Adam Nordwall (a business-man) and Richard Oakes (college student). This event consisted of many young American Indians (which described themselves as Indians of All Tribes) boarding boats to occupy Alcatraz Island overnight. The Red Power Movement resulted in the lasting impression of American Indian pride, action, and awareness. There were many bills and laws that were enacted in response to the Red Power movement. One of the most important laws that was passed was the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975. This reversed the termination of federal tribe recognition, giving them control to govern their own tribes and reservations with funding by the government. The passing of this law was a huge success considering the termination of Indian tribe recognition is said to be of major significance in the start of the Red Power Movement.

I believe that the Indian casinos are indeed helpful to the modern Indians considering they have changed the economic standing in and around the reservations. Many of these casinos are a great tourist attraction which in turn brings in a large amount of money. They are beneficial towards providing public services to their members, improving infrastructure and keeping the native traditions alive. These casinos have provided funding for housing, medical, social services, education (building schools), and many other resources for the Native American tribes.

friends 3

From 1953 to 1964, the U.S. government decided not to recognize more than 100 Indian tribes, native Americans, under Resolution 108 in the U.S. House of Representatives. Their lands and tribes were severely poor and lived in reserves that lacked the most basic health and medical services, rights and assistance, hence the constant objections to abuse, loss of rights and poor health care and preventing them from exercising their rights in everything even though they are Americans Indigenous. In 1961 the roots of the Red Power Movement, a social movement, began to gather some Indians who were dissatisfied with some conservative policies characterized by hard-line attitudes against Native American Indians and began with organized and tribal protests rejecting unjust laws against them, and these The movement wanted to recognize American policy against native American landowners, and organizations were created, part of the Red Power Movement, the American Indian Movement, and the National Council for American Indian Youth, and these organizations were negotiating for their rights and lands and putting forward Their demands at conferences such as the National Conference of Native American Indians, and the work of the force or the red power is a unified public action. In 1968, the Native American People’s Movement was founded by the American Indian Movement (AIM), the Red Force in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where the movement was formed in civilian areas and was aimed at addressing the issues of poverty, police brutality and cruelty in the treatment of Indians, and then the movement expanded in Its work focused on addressing tribal issues in which it faced U.S. policy. The leaders of this movement were young militants and played an important key role in building a network in centers, churches and charitable organizations and helped establish a circle (POWWOW) and this department published news of protest activities throughout the country, and the organization was adept at attracting the attention of the news media to connect their protests to the whole world, the organization was made up of more than 68 indigenous tribes represented by more than 500 people, and they called on the U.S. government to recognize their rights. In 1969, this power became publicly apparent when Adam Nordwall, a successful Indian businessman, and another man, Richard Oakes, a San Francisco student, decided to take over Alcatraz Island, beginning on November 9, but the great occupation took place on the 20th of November. 100 Indians fled on Alcatraz Island, where they were college students, and based their occupation of the island on a law in the ancient Sioux Treaty that Indians could reclaim their abandoned federal lands, and Alcatraz Island was an abandoned federal prison. Their negotiations with the government have been frustrating and they have lost their enthusiasm in a year and a half and the government has taken the island back from them. In 1973, the Red Force reached its strongest stage when militants in the American Indian Movement captured the village of Wandini, South Dakota, in the Olgasiux Reservation, where they held the reserve for more than two months and before surrendering, forcing the U.S. government to conduct a study of Indian affairs and change. Some laws in favor of the Indians in various respects and achieved victory in some aspects that they wanted and then the activity of the red force began to decline in the late 1970s, especially after they achieved some of their demands and the conscience of the world began to wake up on the issue of Native American Indians. As for the casino issue, I saw that casinos were beneficial to Indians because the revenues received gave a great incentive to the economic development of the Indian state, thus supporting the goals of tribal sovereignty and economic self-sufficiency, and unemployment rates have dropped from 30 percent to almost nothing because Casinos have provided a lot of important and regular work for Indians and non-Indians to work in, while the profits that come from games and casinos, the Indian tribes used it to improve and support the medical and health field, comfortable housing, build schools and colleges and set up funds to support education and finance New businesses and investment in alcohol and drug treatment programs and the application of sanitation systems, thus achieving the sovereignty required to support their needs and self-determination.

A Topical History of the United States / Modern America / Fifth Edition

Jerry Baydo & Jason Newman

National Indian Youth Council -

American Indian Movement – (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)



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