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1) A codified law is known as a

A) deviant act.

B) statute.

C) theory.

D) crime.

 

2) According to John F. Galliher, legal definitions of criminality are arrived at through a __________ process.

A) sociological

B) psychological

C) political

D) mainstream

 

3) Ron Classen sees crime primarily as

A) a violation of a law.

B) problem behavior.

C) an offense against human relationships.

D) a form of social maladjustment.

 

4) The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through

A) general agreement of members of society.

B) a political process.

C) the existence of shared norms and values.

D) none of the above

 

5) Which of the following jobs probably would not fall within the field of criminalistics?

A) Fingerprint examiner

B) Polygraph operator

C) Forensics examiner

D) Correctional officer

 

6) A police officer or probation officer is best described as a

A) criminalist.

B) criminologist.

C) criminal justice professional.

D) none of the above

 

7) __________ definitions focus on criminology’s role in uncovering the underly-

ing causes of crime.

A) Scientific

B) Causative

C) Disciplinary

D) None of the above

 

8) According to various professional groups, violence in television, music, video

games, and movies

A) may lead to increased levels of violent behavior among children.

B) may lead to decreased levels of violent behavior among children.

C) may lead to emotional sensitization toward violence in real life.

D) may have no effect on levels of violent behavior among children.

 

9) Which of the following is not an immediate input provided by the justice system that may enhance or reduce the likelihood of criminal occurrences?

A) Police response time to a crime scene

B) The availability or lack of official assistance

C) The presence or absence of police officers

D) A prison that acts as a “crime school”

10) Which of the following is not considered a property crime by the UCR?

A) Robbery

B) Burglary

C) Arson

D) Theft

 

11) Which of the following is not a reason why rape victims fail to report their victimization?

A) Fear that the crime is not important enough to report

B) Fear of the perpetrator

C) Fear of participation in the criminal justice system

D) Shame

 

12) The category of crimes in NIBRS which corresponds most closely to the UCR Part I offenses is

A) Group A offenses

B) Part I crimes

C) NIBRS key crimes

D) None of the above

 

13) According to Elliott Currie, the __________ is the rate of crime calculated on the basis of crimes that would likely be committed by those who are incapacitated by the criminal justice system.

A) actual crime rate

B) criminality index

C) latent crime rate

D) clearance rate

 

14) The NCVS divides larceny into the categories of __________ larceny.

A) household and personal

B) grand and petty

C) violent and nonviolent

D) felony and misdemeanor

 

15) Which of the following is not a finding of the National Youth Survey?

A) Violent offenders begin lives of crime earlier than originally believed.

B) Females are involved in a smaller proportion of crime than previously thought.

C) There is a consistent progression from less serious to more serious acts of

delinquency over time.

D) Race differentials in crime are smaller than traditional data sources indicated.

 

16) The first step in any research is to

A) develop a research design.

B) choose a data collection technique.

C) review the findings.

D) identify a problem.

17) A __________ is especially valuable when aspects of the social setting are beyond the control of the researcher.

A) one-group pretest-posttest design

B) case study

C) controlled experiment

D) quasi-experimental design

 

18) The study of one particular criminal organization is an example of the __________ data-gathering strategy.

A) survey research

B) case study

C) participant observation

D) secondary analysis

 

19) The degree of dispersion of scores around the mean is known as the

A) standard deviation.

B) median.

C) correlation.

D) significance test.

 

20) A __________ correlation exists between sample size and the degree of confidence we can have in our results.

A) positive

B) curvilinear

C) negative

D) inverse

 

21) In which year was the Magna Carta signed?

A) 450 B.C.

B) 1215

C) 1066

D) 1700 B.C.

 

22) Which of the following was not one of the three types of crimes outlined by Beccaria?

A) Crimes that involved no victims other than society

B) Crimes that ran contrary to the social order

C) Crimes that injured citizens or their property

D) Crimes that threatened the security of the state

 

23) Which of the following categories of punishment might include the loss of the right to vote?

A) chronic

B) compulsive

C) indelible

D) restrictive

 

24) The argument that crime is not a result of poverty or social conditions and

therefore cannot be affected by social programs was made by

A) Lawrence Cohen.

B) David Fogel.

C) Ronald V. Clarke.

D) James Q. Wilson.

25) Research by __________ found that a small number of chronic recidivists were responsible for a large majority of serious violent crime.

A) Marvin Wolfgang

B) Marcus Felson

C) Jack Katz

D) Ronald V. Clarke

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