ASU Why the USA Needs Black Lawyers More than It Needs Black Police Discussion – Assignment Help

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The Literature Review

´Tends to be organized around different aspects or components of the research question

´The literature review should not be one-sided. If there are multiple perspectives on an issue, these perspectives should be represented in the literature review

´The author CAN, however, logically argue for the validity of one perspective over another

´If this is the case, the research question and hypotheses should be evaluated in such a way that can test the different perspectives.


You need at least three segments that organize your literature review

You need to cite at least 10 articles. They can be the same articles you used for your annotated bibliography, you can add articles or switch out articles as you see fit.

Header 1:

1-3 synthesizing sentences

Bullet points of articles you will summarize – cite the article and list key summary points

1-3 sentences of implications, critique, and/or limitations

1-3 sentence future directions pertaining to your research question

Header 2:

1-3 synthesizing sentences

Bullet points of articles you will summarize – cite the article and list key summary points

1-3 sentences of implications, critique, and/or limitations

1-3 sentence future directions pertaining to your research question

Header 3:

1-3 synthesizing sentences

Bullet points of articles you will summarize – cite the article and list key summary points

1-3 sentences of interpretation and implications.

1-3 sentence critique/limitations and future directions pertaining to your research question

****Also, please copy and paste your edited introduction segment that you already completed before the literature review


Topic: Vicarious Discrimination and Links to Internalizing Problems: The Moderating Role of Observed Racial Socialization.

Insert Introduction Segment Here

Header 1: Discrimination and Links to Internalizing Problems

Synthesis: Several studies have found that experiences of racial discrimination from teachers, peers, and community members are linked to increased levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety among Black youth and young adults.


  • Stein, Supple, Huq, and Dunbar (2015): found that teacher discrimination linked to greater depression among Black adolescents ages 13-18.
  • Stevenson (2010): Found that discrimination regarding housing, employment, and daily hassles (such as being followed in a store) linked to greater anxiety among Black college students.
  • Dunbar, Smith-Bynum, and Coates (2018): Found that race-based bullying and rejection by peers was linked to increases in anxiety, social withdrawal, and depression among Black 10-15 year old children living in racially diverse neighborhoods


  • Overall, these studies indicate that experiencing high levels of discrimination from a variety of contexts can have a negative impact on mental health.
  • These results have important implications for Black youth and young adults who are constantly exposed to racial discrimination in their environments.
    • These associated mental health problems can disrupt learning and have long term employment consequences due to disruptions in education due to mental health issues.

Critique/limitations and Future directions:

  • Although these studies adequately document the negative effects of personal experiences with racial discrimination, they do not account for youths experiences of vicarious experiences of discrimination either witnessed via media or witnessing discrimination from peers.
    • Witnessing discrimination may be just as detrimental to mental health as personally experience discrimination, therefore, future studies should examine the impact of vicarious racial discrimination.

Header 2: The Mediating Role of Distress

Synthesis: Theory and research suggest that the mechanism by which experiences of discrimination lead to depression is via the distress that discrimination elicits.


  • Gram (2013): found that elevated blood pressure mediated the link between discrimination at work and depressive symptoms among Black factory workers.
  • Neblett, Jones, and Stevenson (2010): Survey data indicated that Black youth who experienced discrimination from peers and teachers reported feeling highly upset and distressed immediately after the event. Such high levels of stress lead to increased anxiety a year later.
  • Cabrera (2016): Increased heart rate mediated the link between peer discrimination and depression among college students.


  • Taken together, these studies suggest that experiences of discrimination can lead to increased physiological and emotional distress which then leads to greater internalizing problems overtime.

Critique/limitations and Future directions:

  • However, these studied do not specify the type of emotions that are underlying the distress or physiological response.
    • Greater attention can be given to specific emotional responses in the face of discrimination. What emotions specifically lead to greater internalizing problems? Sadness, embarrassment, and fear? Or Anger and frustration. Are both linked?

Header 3: The Moderating Role of Racial Socialization

Synthesis: Several Studies demonstrate that various forms of racial socialization, including cultural pride messages, preparation for bias, and promotion of mistrust, can either buffer against or exacerbate the link between discrimination and internalizing problems.


  • cite 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4


  • In summary, whether racial socialization serves as a protective factor or detrimental factor depends on the type of racial socialization message used.
  • This means that parents can be attempting to help children but unknowingly cause more damage.

Critique/limitations and Future directions:

  • Most of these studies rely on parents reports of their racial socialization messages, which can sometimes be over or under-reported and thus, may bias the study results.
    • Studies that observe racial socialization as it is taking place in real time may be able to pick up on behaviors and practices that parents are either not aware of or do not wish to report.

Overall Conclusion

*****this should align with your research goals and topic. As you can see, it directly restates my topic in relation to what is missing in the literature.

Given the significance of the effects of discrimination on health and the limitations of the literature, future research should examine the effect of vicarious experiences of discrimination on specific emotional reactions and subsequent links to internalizing problems. Finally, studies should examine whether and how observed racial socialization moderates these links.


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