ART 115 Hudson County Community College Stained Glass Essay

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 Instructions

The use of stained glass in churches is a hallmark of Gothic style and sensibility. What are its stylistic origins? How does it comment upon Christian ideals of the Gothic era? Be as specific as you can.

Guidelines

Essay assignments should conform to MLA format and cite the associated reading/resource.

Use a 12-point font.

Use double spacing, so there is room for me to write comments.

Include your last name in the filename (example: Unit-1 AS1 Smith.) 

It should be a Word (.doc or .docx) format file.400 words The Middle Ages: Gothic Art; The Renaissance: Art in 13th & 14th Century Italy
Unit Description
Unit 7 introduces students to the cultural shifts and technological advances that made Gothic art different from the Romanesque. Students will be able to identify Gothic styles across Europe and recognize their impact on later art, especially in Italy.
Learning Outcomes

Employ the vocabulary and concepts used to discuss works of art, artists, and art history.

Identify the visual hallmarks of regional and period styles for formal, technical, and expressive qualities.

Interpret the meaning of works of art from diverse cultures, periods, and locations based on their themes, subjects, and symbols.

Relate artists and works of art to their cultural, economic, and political contexts.

Interpret art using appropriate art historical methods, such as observation and inductive reasoning.

Select visual and textual evidence to support an argument or interpretation.

Readings
Read Unit 7 Lecture Part 1 and Part 2Read textbook:

Chapter 12: The Gothic

Chapter 13: Art in 13th & 14th Century Italy

The Middle Ages: Gothic Art; The Renaissance: Art in 13th and 14th Century Italy
Around 1140 the Gothic style of architecture exploded onto the scene.  Buildings were built with great verticality, pointed arches, flying buttresses, and large areas of stained-glass windows.  The flying buttresses help buildings to have thinner walls, allowing them to reach greater heights with large spaces available for stained glass decoration.  In sculpture, the Gothic sensibility created more humanized figures than seen previously in Romanesque works.  Although still attached to the wall, the sculpted figures became more three-dimensional and emphasized the structure’s verticality.  Gothic manuscript painting is influenced by the luminosity and richness of stained-glass windows.The art movement known as the Renaissance began in the city-states of Italy in the late Gothic period at the very end of the Middle Ages.  Late Gothic art in Italy forms a bridge that spans between Medieval and Renaissance art.  Italian artists were inspired by Roman works, broke away from Byzantine traditions, and established two strong schools of painting.  These artists formed two schools of painting:  The Sienese and the Florentine.Chapter 12:  The Gothic
Early Gothic Art in France
Key Images

Ambulatory of the abbey church of Saint-Denis, 12.2

  1. West façade of abbey church of Saint-Denis, 12.3

West façade of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.4

  1. West portal (Royal Portal) of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.5
  2. Jamb statues, west portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.6
  3. Nave of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Laon, 12.7
  4. Nave of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, 12.9

West façade of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, 12.10

High Gothic Art in France
Key Images

Nave and choir of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres,.12

Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.15

North transept of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.17

Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière, cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.18

Portals, north transept of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.20

Coronation of the Virgin (tympanum), Dormition and Assumption of the Virgin(lintel), north portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.21

Jamb statues, south transept portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 12.22

Nave and side aisle of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Amiens, 12.24

Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims, 12.27

Annunciation and Visitation, west portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims, 12.28

Melchizedek and Abraham, interior west wall of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims, 12.29

Signs of the Zodiac and Labors of the Months, west façade of Amiens cathedral, 12.30

Rayonnant or Court Style
Key Images

Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 12.31

Interior of upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, 12.32

  1. Saint-Urbain, Troyes, 12.33
  2. Interior of Saint-Urbain, Troyes, 12.34
  3. Crucifixion and Deposition, from the Psalter of Blanche of Castile, 12.35
  4. Scenes from the Apocalypse, from a Bible moralisée, 12.36
  5. Melchizedek and Abraham, from the Psalter of St. Louis, 12.37
  6. Late Gothic Art in France
    Key Images
  7. Master Honoré, David and Goliath, from The Prayer Book of Philip IV the Fair, 12.38

Jean Pucelle, The Betrayal of Christ and Annunciation, from the Hours of Jeanne d’Évreux, 12.39

Guillaume de Machaut, The Enchanted Garden, from Le Dit du Lion, 12.40

Virgin of Jeanne d’Évreux, 12.41

Virgin of Paris, 12.42

Siege of the Castle of Love, 12.43

Pierre Robin and Ambroise Harel, West façade of Saint-Maclou, Rouen, 12.44

The Spread of Gothic Art
Key Images

Exterior of cathedral of Santa Maria, León, 12.46

Interior of cathedral of Santa Maria, León, 12.47

  • Simeon, jamb statue, south portal of west façade, cathedral of Santa Maria, León, 12.48

Salisbury cathedral, 12.49

Nave of Salisbury  cathedral, 12.51

Choir of Gloucester cathedral, 12.52

  • Henry Yevele and Hugh Herland, Interior and wooden roof of Westminster Hall, 12.53

Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, 12.54

Jesus Teaching in the Temple and Hunting Scene, from the Queen Mary Psalter, 12.55

Heinrich Parler the Elder and Peter Parler (?), Nave and choir of Heiligenkreuz, Schwäbish-Gmünd, Germany, 12.56

Naumburg Master, Crucifixion, on the choir screen, and the Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist, Naumberg cathedral, 12.57

Naumburg Master, The Kiss of Judas, on the choir screen, Naumburg cathedral, 12.58

Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg cathedral, 12.59

Roettgen Pietà, 12.60

The Gothic style began in and around Paris in ca.1140, and within a century, it had spread throughout Europe.  By 1400, the Gothic style had started to dissipate, and by the mid-sixteenth century, it had entirely disappeared except in England.  The Gothic style was born with the rebuilding of the royal Abbey Church of St.-Denis (12.2), 1137–1144, by Abbot Suger.  Although none of the elements that comprised Gothic architecture were new to the period, these elements were brought together for the first time in the renovation of the eighth-century Church of St.-Denis.Gothic builders’ soaring engineering, structural, and aesthetic feats reached a climax by the mid-thirteenth century; later, churches were less ambitious.  Late Gothic architecture was characterized by profuse ornamentation.  Early Gothic jamb figures represent the “first step” toward the reconstitution of monumental sculpture in the round.By the late twelfth century, a more classicism-oriented attitude transformed jamb sculpture with more organic figure treatment.  By the early fourteenth century, this classicism had given way to more decorative, abstract qualities.  From the beginning, stained glass was an integral element of Gothic architecture.  With the rebuilding of Chartres cathedral (12.4) during the early thirteenth century following a fire, there was an advancement in Gothic architecture with verticality and translucency.  There is also increased naturalism in the door jamb statues.Some scholars have suggested that the integration of structure and design in the art of the Early Gothic period was a series of artistic “experiments” that were later resolved in the High Gothic period.  During the thirteenth century, the majority of manuscripts were illuminated in monastic scriptoria. In the Late Gothic period, the production of manuscripts shifted to urban workshops, prefiguring today’s publishing houses.  Several factors contributed to the rapid spread of Gothic art, including the skill of the architects and artisans and the prestige of the French centers of learning. Another contributing factor was the power of the style itself.Resources:
Chartres Cathedral:  https://www.cathedrale-chartres.org/Amiens Cathedral:  https://www.monuments-nationaux.fr/en/

Chapter 13:  Art in 13th and 14th Century Italy
The Growth of the Mendicant Orders and the Visual Arts in Italy

Key Images

  • Interior of Upper Church, Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, 13.1
  1. Anonymous, Saint Francis Preaching to the Birds, 13.2

Altarpiece of Saint Clare, 13.3

Arnoldfo di Cambio (?), Nave and choir of Santa Croce, Florence, 13.4

Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, 13.6

Nicola Pisano, Fortitude, detail of the pulpit, 13.7

Nicola Pisano, Nativity,  detail of the pulpit, 13.8

Giovanni Pisano, Nativity, detail of pulpit, 13.9

Florence cathedral and baptistery seen from the air, 13.10

Nave and choir of Florence cathedral, 13.11

Andrea Pisano, South doors, baptistery of San Giovanni, 13.13

Andrea Pisano, The Baptism of Christ, from the south doors, baptistery of San Giovanni, 13.14

Palazzo della Signoria (Palazzo Vecchio), Florence, 13.15

Painting in Tuscany
Key Images

  • Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned, 13.16
  • Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, 13.17
  • Interior of Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, 13.18
  • Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel 13.19
  • Giotto, The Lamentation, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, 13.20
  • Palazzo Pubblico, 13.21
  • Duccio, Madonna Enthroned, center of the Maestà Altar, 13.22
  • Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maestà Altar, 13.23
  • Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem, from the back of the Maestà Altar, 13.24

Simone Martini, Annunciation, 13.25

Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin, 13.26

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Allegory of Good Government, 13.27

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the City, 13.28

  • Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the Country, 13.29
  • Anonymous (Francesco Traini?), The Triumph of Death (detail), 13.30
  • Andrea da Firenze, The Way of Salvation, 13.31
  • Northern Italy
    Key Images

Doge’s Palace, Venice, 13.32

  • Tomb of Bernabò Visconti, Milan, 13.33
  • Giovannino dei Grassi, Hours of Giangaleazzo Visconti,.34

The mendicants’ mission to preach resulted in the construction of large urban churches.  These churches were basilica-plan churches with a large nave and wooden roof.  Franciscan churches began to appear all over Italy as the friars ministered to the spiritual lives of city dwellers.  The art in these churches was meant to be legible to the viewer, with narrative scenes inspired by Roman art forms or Northern Gothic styles.In Florence, Arnolfo di Cambio was chosen to design a new cathedral (13.10) to replace a smaller church on the same site.  This project spanned several generations.  In 1330, Andrea Pisano was commissioned to cast a new pair of doors for the Florence baptistery (13.13). Thirteenth- and fourteenth-century painters in Tuscany created images that represented nature more than artists of the earlier medieval periods.  This interest in nature resulted in representations of light on three-dimensional forms and illusions of space within paintings.  These techniques were intended to involve the viewer to a greater extent than before.  This naturalism was embodied in the paintings of Duccio and Giotto. The architecture of Venice was directly influenced by Venetian trade with the Far East and the Middle East.  This resulted in the open arcades and decorative surfaces seen in buildings such as the Doge’s Palace.  In Milan, the architecture was greatly influenced by the French Gothic style, with the artistic commissions of the Visconti family during the 14th Century reflecting a desire to imitate French aristocracy.Resources:
The Scrovegni Chapel:  http://www.cappelladegliscrovegni.it/index.php/en/The Mother and Child Enthroned by Cimabue at Uffizi Gallery:  https://www.uffizi.it/en/artworks/virgin-and-child-enthroned-and-prophets-santa-trinita-maesta

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