(2 points) Synaptic pruning is the process by which
neurons seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers
the two brain hemispheres lateralize during early childhood
neural fibers become myelinated as a result of stimulation of the brain
new synaptic connections are formed by environmental stimulation
2 (2 points) Donnie and Vinny are playing with similar objects in the same room, without looking at one another at all. They are engaging in _____ play.
3 (2 points) Robert was upset when his family car hit a dog. Although the dog was OK and ran away, Robert insisted that his father go back and “Run over the dog backwards, so he’ll be okay.” Although incorrect in this assumption, Robert is displaying
reversibility of thought
4 (2 points) Understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even though their outward appearance has changed is
5 (2 points) Which of the developmental trends matches most closely with the maturation rates of the two hemispheres of the brain?
spatial skills develop very rapidly in early childhood
control over the arms develops before control over the feet
children show a strong hand preference from birth
language skills develop very rapidly in early childhood
6 (2 points) A major factor that determines what foods children will prefer is
their genetic preference for very salty foods
repeated exposure to a food
direct pressure to eat a particular type of food
their genetic preference for very sweet foods
7 (2 points) When parents have difficulty controlling their own anger adn hostility, their children tend to
be more empathic
be fearful and shy
have problems regulating emotion
have higher IQs
8 (2 points) A set of attitudes, abilities, and values that define an individual are known as
9 (2 points) While Jesse plays, his mother comments and encourages him without giving direct instructions. This form of supportive communication is known as
10 (2 points) Which of the following statements about sex differences in aggression is true?
As soon as children become aware of gender stereotypes, overt aggression drops off for boys
Preschool and school-age girls are just as aggressive than boys
Girls are more likely to engage in overt aggression
Boys are more likely to engage in relational aggression
11 (2 points) ____ hormone and ____ hormone are pituitary hormones that affect children’s growth
12 (2 points) Researchers at a child-care center observed children who had been physically abused. Compared to their nonabused peers, abused children were more likely to ____ when another child was in distress
be more empathic
seek the help of an adult
respond with anger
13 (2 points) Christine frequently plays alone with puzzles, crayons, and construction materials. It is likely that Christine is
cognitively but not socially delayed
bright and socially competent
cognitively and socially delayed
socially delayed but bright
14 (2 points) Natascha wants to design a play environment that will enhance the make-believe play of her preschoolers. WHich of the following things should she do?
Offer a wide variety of realistic materials as well as materials without a clear function
Limit the amount of space and play materials so that the children will not be distracted from themake-believe task
Allow the children to resolve their own disagreements without adult interference
Select the topic for play and then direct the children’s activities
15 (2 points) Children who spend more time in sociodramatic play are
at risk for social rejection
less socially competent
advanced in cognitive development
more physically skilled than their agemates
16 (2 points) Young Fletcher notices a four-legged creature and calls it a ‘dog’, ignoring the telltale facial features and stripes that indicate the creature is a tiger. Fletcher is demonstrating
perception bound thought
17 (2 points) The best way of estimating a child’s physical maturity is to use
18 (2 points) According to Piaget, which of the following would have the greatest impact on mental representation for a child in the preoperational stage?
playing with a ball
asking a parent to get a ball
dreaming about a ball
looking at a ball
19 (2 points) On the average, 2- and 3- year-olds need ____ hours of sleep and 4- to 6- year-olds need _____ hours
10 to 11; 8 to 9
14 to 15; 10 to 11
14 to 15; 8 to 9
12 to 13; 10 to 11
20 (2 points) Piaget used the term _______ to describe mental representations of actions that obey logical rules
21 (2 points) During early childhood, on the average, children grow about _____ inches and gain about ______ pounds each year.
3 to 4; 10
1 to 2; 10
4 to 5 5
2 to 3; 5
22 (2 points) According to Vygotsky, children speak to themselves
because they are lonely
for the pleasure of hearing their own voice
because they are egocentric
23 (2 points) Myelination of the ____ throughout early childhood and into adolescence contributes to improvements in sustained, controlled attention
24 (2 points) A decline in appetite during the preschool years
suggests a pituitary hormone disorder
occurs because growth has slowed
is an early sign of deprivation dwarfism
indicates a deficiency of thyroxine
25 (2 points) Right-handed children are more likely than left-handed children to
be weakly lateralized
develop outstanding verbal and mathematical skills
lie turned toward the left during the prenatal period
26 (2 points) _______ refers to the judgements we make bout our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
27 (2 points) In comparing Piaget’s and vygotsky’s theories,
Piaget’s theory paid more attention to the development of basic cognitive processes
Vygotsky, but not Piaget, attempted to understand the significance of children’s private speech
Vygotsky placed more emphasis on skills such as categorization and problem-solving
Piaget’s theory pointed out the importance of children’s communication with caregivers
28 (2 points) Which of the following is 3-year-old Leah most likely to believe is alive?
the kitchen table
29 (2 points) Neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget’s stage approach with an emphasis on
30 (2 points) ______ has/have been shown to strengthen attention, memory, logical reasoning, language, imagination, and creativity
Fine motor tasks
31 (2 points) The original inspiration for the cognitive-developmental approach to morality was the
work of Piaget
information-processing theory of cognition
belief that moral development is a lifelong process
32 (2 points) Which of these influences has the strongest effect on the age at which children lose their primary teeth?
Breast- versus bottle- feeding
33 (2 points) At what point are helpful and generous models most influential on children’s prosocial behavior?
during the early elementary years
during the preschool years
34 (2 points) Seth’s parents make sure to provide him with lots of rich, real-world experiences and restrict his television viewing to one hour of “Sesame Street” per week. Which of the following statements about Seth is probably accurate?
Seth has limites social knowledge to incorporate into fantasy play
Seth’s parents are limiting his ability to engage in fantasy play
Seth’s fantasy play will contain many violent themes
Seth’s fantasy play involves very little aggressive behavior
35 (2 points) An overproduction of ____ during early childhood supports the plasticity of the brain
36 (2 points) In Freud’s theory, a young girl identifies with her mother by
doing new activities with her mother
rejecting her father altogether
feeling that her mother loves her unconditionally
taking on her mother’s characteristics, including morals and gender-role standards
37 (2 points) According to Piaget, the preoperational stage begins at _____ and ends at _____
2 years; 7 years
7 years; 10 years
4 years; 6 years
birth; 4 years
38 (2 points) X-rays of ______ permit doctors to estimate children’s progress toward physical maturity
39 (2 points) Which of the following is supported by research on sleep?
About half of preschoolers experience frequent difficulty falling and staying asleep
Most children begin having night mares during toddlerhood
Bedtime rituals become less important to children during the preschool years than they wre dureing toddlerhood
In some cultures, daytime napping persists throughtou adulthood
40 (2 points) Parents use ______ with boys than girls
fewer time outs
less physical discipline and more “reasoning”
more consistent discipline
41 (2 points) The make-believe play with others that first appears between 2 and 3 years is called
42 (2 points) Sean and Jordan are playing in the sandbox. Sean says, “Use the wet sand for the castle. No, the blocks will be best. Were are the blocks?” Jordan is playing with a truck at the other end of the sandbox. According to Piaget, Sean’s speech is
43 (2 points) When 4-year-old Nicholas sees a tree blowing in the wind, he says, “Look! The tree is waving at!” Nicholas is demonstrating
44 (2 points) Cross-cultural research demonstrates that growth norms
vary within a culture and vary by socioeconomic status
vary by culture
are not good standards against which to judge health problems for children in nonindustrialized countries
45 (2 points) Children and adults who exhibit either masculine or androgynous characteristics
are extremely rare
are higher in self-esteem
possess neither feminine nor masculine characteristics
46 (2 points) A major change in represrntation that increases steadily from 4 to 8 years of age is
the appearance of self-directed sociodramatic play
directing pretend actions toward other objects
the awareness that make-believe is a representational activity
the use of less realistic toys in make-believe play
47 (2 points) The gland located at the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth is the ____ gland
48 (2 points) Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for children
are less violent than adult shows
have no effect on aggression, since children do not understand them
contain more acts of violence than any other type of program
actually decrease aggression by providing an acceptable emotional outlet
49 (2 points) As children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage,
the use of objects in play become more functinal and realistic
thinking becomes related to logical rules
make-believe play dimishes
symbolic mental activity increases
50 (2 points) According to Erikson, _____ is a means through which preschools can try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure
having a temper tantrum
51 (2 points) The _____ is a structure at the rear and base of the brain that aids in balance and control of body movement
52 (2 points) By age 7, American low-SES children are, on the average,
About 1 inch shorter than the average for middle-SES children
Much more variable in size compared to middle-SES children
No different in size than their middle-SES agemates
Comparable to low-SES children in other industrialized countries
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